[Preface: If you are craving to innovation, look around your surroundings]

17/ What I look for is the base of most people that make it mechanically mechanically and do it.

23/ The fact that science and technology disappears in the background without sound rumors can be seen as a good fit for Western society. If there is no reminder of the existence of technology, the process of being buried in the background is more smooth.

24-30/ The appearance of the only bank

It was in the center of Campala, the capital of Uganda and more than 1.4 million people.

Sente refers to sending money by detour using existing telecommunications business models and infrastructure instead of through formal financial institutions.

For example, Akiki, who lives in Kampala, tries to send money to her wife, Masani, who remains in her hometown. Instead, if you call the rural telephone store exchange and inform you of the prepaid charging code, the exchange will use it to provide telephone services to the villagers and receive a call fee. Then, in the charging amount purchased by Aki, the remaining 20 percent to 30 percent of the fee is delivered to Masani in cash. This solves the problem without the need for banks, buses or taxis.

Nobody knows who first attempted Sente to send money through this informal route. It’s just trying to save time and effort by using resources that someone can use. And since the phone shops served as a local love room where residents gathered to share information, this transaction was quickly spread, and service began to be provided to other guests. It will be difficult to devise a service that fits the taste.

Of course, Sente was an unofficial route, so there were many inconveniences … Sente’s demand was explosive, but it was limited because of the remarkable disadvantages. Here, there was a chance to provide a formally designed service.

Most of the customers were already charging prepayment on their cell phones, and many of them were using Sente, which suited the local situation.

There are several types of methods that explore 30/ current consumption and use them as the cornerstone of future prediction. One of them is to find Emergent Behaviors … If the condition is formed, it can spread in no time. For example, the anti -action that appears to avoid the appearance and the cost of it (such as the ringing and cutting the phone to get in touch without paying a mobile phone fee). This creative act is often caused by cultural memes (cultural factors that are acquired through imitation, not genetic methods).

42/ Simple acts of urban maps, country maps, and world maps in another geographical position makes us realize that we are no longer in ‘there’ but ‘here’.

43/ I do not do and do not do the turning point between Don’t do ‘. It is the beginning of our journey to explore this limit and understand how to understand a particular behavior. Also, we will look at how when the things we buy and carry and how they come in underwater and how it shows our identity when it shows off in front of others.

[One. ‘Hagi’ and ‘not’]

51-55/ Secrets hidden in your actions

If there is a framework specified as the default value for companies’ research, the customer journey is also Customer Journey Map. This tool provides detailed information on each event generally experienced by consumers during the day, discloses how to move from one case to the next case, and identifies the contacts that use the products and services we designed. The customer journey map is quite professional because the documentation process is quite accurate, and the appearance is also connected to a lot of square and lines.

In addition to the customer journey map … Limit Map Threshold Map. This has the advantage of focusing on any human behavior on the new product diffuse spectrum.

When a limit map is made, a human being experienced for most times (for example, most people don’t feel too dirty in the daytime, so the water is noticeable. Do not jump) is called default condition. The limit map tells you the default value and then makes you understand what happens when humans cross to different situations.

It is mainly related to the maintenance of water -soluble acceptability and appropriateness levels that people cross the limit of entering or control themselves and cross the boundaries. To understand what is within the border of the proper use and what is elsewhere, you must first identify the context that the object will be used and know the category of the situation where you can change it.

58-61/ Crystal fatigue that makes us weak

… How many minutes should I exercise at the gym to feel free to eat a small piece? How long do you have to wear a shirt to give it to someone else? How much do you have to be in the house? If you understand the exceptional situation and the acts you need to go back to the Comfort Zone, you will realize that the trivial things are not trivial.

Casino is famous for being able to serve alcohol and food for free and to inject large amounts of oxygen into the room so that it does not feel tired. According to the results of psychological experiments on human will, the decision fatigue that comes from the mental labor of hunger, lack of sleep, and frequent decision -making, it is easy to shake because of the factors of decision fatigue. Scholars who study consumer psychology tell us how small factors that seem to have little influence, such as intermittent sounds and lighting, promote impulsive and irrational purchase habits.

… If you have to avoid eating cakes later, don’t focus on how hungry you are. Otherwise, the minimum limit may rise and you may have a cake in your mouth without you knowing. On the other hand, if you are in a position to sell cakes, you will be hungry, tired, and mentally tired and recommended.

61-65/ Who is your body for?

… Through the study of the body, the desire of cleanliness was usually related to physical discomfort, and it was closely related to confidence or social Yong Yong.

The fact that there is a minimum limit of the body at the moment when no one wants to meet or does not want to have a specific social exchange such as a meeting or a date. On the contrary, the highest limit is that confidence is at its peak.

66-67/ Decisive but minor difference

In the late 1970s, only one out of 99 people have changed, according to Professor Granovetter. It’s a little bit too.

Members of the crowd make personal decisions whether they will participate in the riots based on their perception of the benefits of the riots (catharsis of anger eruption) and risk (arrest potential). The individuals in the crowd, except for the first incitement, who decided to make a riot unconditionally, waited for the time to join the riots. The limit of the incitement is 0 and the most conservative of the 100 is 99.

72/ Most of them were using an emergency strategy … It is scary to look at the empty wallet.

73/ Mint.com website allows users to manage the area near the boundary alarm limit.

There is also the possibility of innovation in the limit of worry, the end of the 74-75/ Consumption Comfort Zone. Every moment you have to make a decision on consumption, mental energy is consumed to some extent. Behavioral economics is called mental transaction costs. When psychological sacrifices are greater than purchasing value, we reach the limit of worry. This is why the online small payment system failed … People prefer to pay annual dues rather than a small amount of small payment, and use credit cards even when cash is sufficient when calculating in a restaurant. This is because the depletion of virtual funds is lower in terms of mental trading costs than the depletion of physical funds.

To break down the limit of worry, you can get rid of the cost of mental trading. One of the ways is to delegate it.

[2. Gucci suits are poisonous]

Most of the objects on the 80/ personal showcase are a kind of metaphor for the person’s identity.

85-88/ waste is essential to get a high reputation. Basic daily necessities consumption can not be praised.

Beblan Thorstein Veblen was cynical, but it still pointed out two things. First, to be recognized for the social status, it is necessary to support it, and second, it is powerful evidence that it is not poor even though the show seems to be vulgar. Dutch scholars, however, realized that luxury actually gives more than just half -glow.

Rob Nelissen and Maline Myers Marijn Meijers of Tilberg University are in a series of experiments on the social effects of luxury clothes …

However, wearing a luxury brand did not always get positive results … I informed me that it was gained for free … The truth was not necessarily important and realized that the appearance was key.

90/ Bangkok’s fake dental corrections are very interesting examples … In Iran, the Islamic government banned dog owning dogs, and when it was a symbol of resistance between secularists who opposed the government.

When you put a cell phone on the table 92-94/ The advantage of making it easy to see if the phone or text came, and the disadvantage of increasing the risk of theft is relatively balanced. Does not exist.

… This is because social excuses are an important means of ‘pretending not to be vanity’ that everyone participates in.

Kate Fox Kate Fox is … [Discovery British Watching The English] toilet … Read … The lowest worker class … as a humor book or a sports magazine … I hate it at all. On the contrary, the middle class often makes small libraries in the bathroom. Finally, when looking at the upper class, their tastes are surprising to the lowest level. It is humor and sports. At first glance, only the upper middle class seems to be trying to make a good impression on the guests. But the upper class is likewise to show off … Their goal is to create a simple house atmosphere in a magnificent mansion.

96/ There are so many things to know about the tastes and aspirations of the residents in the cupboard or the refrigerator of the house. .

100-101/ Technology amplifies behavior … If you follow this assumption, the technology advances make it easier for pride to boast, make people with high positions easily show off their identity, and the lower class people take off the shackles. Make it difficult.

Transplanting a communication device into your ear … Is it a symbol of a high position or a symbol of a low position?

104-105/ Some people have a strong show and others like to express them, while others don’t like what they see. Let’s say that the sum of all positive and negative characteristics that an individual expresses through objects or appearance at a certain moment. Gofman calls these objects and appearance called Performance Equipment. What is the absolute minimum of the S needed to go out or invite people home? How much is the absolute high S of the moment when I feel too bad for myself because my luxury is too much?

All men and women of the world will agree with Shakespeare’s words that they are only actors who play a lot of roles in life. However, the world consists of millions of stages, billions of stages, or small items and costumes. The acting, lines, and gestures we do are convincing when we are side by side on the scene on the standing stage. But proper props and costumes not only make us look natural on any stage, but also make it feel comfortable.

[3. The secret of success, push and pull]

In a series of research in 113/1940 … Bryce Ryan Bryce Ryan and Neal Gross are the acceptance of hybrid corn seeds … The results of the investigation …. Joe Bohlen and George Bill George Beal made a model, but since the first announcement in 1957 … In this model, called the Diffness Process … In the 5th stage … is a stage of recognition … … This is the stage of the actual experience. Finally, the stage of acceptance comes.

122/ We all of the means of communication means novelty and cliché, ubiquity and rareness, ease and difficulty of use, functional advantages and disadvantages …

123/ … Alvin Eoffler, Alvin Eoffler, called the psychological impact when experiencing ‘too much change for too short bars’ is called Future Shock.

128-133/ When you dig into the porn market, you will see a culture.

Because porn is taboo … In the case of contraindications like pornography, there is a tendency to demand creative bypasses. It’s one of the fast and easy ways to measure … In China … In China, a woman stands at the corner of the market with a baby wrapped in a strong life. The fake baby is an exciting distance where the pedestrians can stop and give her a woman.

134-135/ The best way to understand how a culture accepts innovation is to go there and see it yourself. In this way, you can understand the social barriers that are unique in the culture, and you can understand whether the cause of acceptance is purely reflective (social status), behavioral charm (useful), or relative importance between them. If you investigate properly, you can find out the emotions of acceptance that is never known in the quantitative data.

140-142/ If there is a tide, there is also a low tide

When is the time when new technologies are completely old technologies such as public telephones, typewriters, and manual tools? When is the social and behavioral styles that change and call the servants, such as drops and sheaths, are buried in the back of history. ..Penpal … Penpal … Clues about human behavior such as jockey, envelopes, paper clips, and fountain pens are around us. In the near future, this list will include actual currency or coins, conventional tickets of various types of conventional types, steel keys, and car rearview mirrors.

All the techniques are like a shell of a herrage … If the herniation changes the shell, their desire changes or finds something that fits better for them.

[4. Business opportunities hidden in belongings they carry every day]

146-147/ The three essential belongings to choose in any country in the world are keys, money, and mobile phones. Make it. The key provides a shelter and keeps the possessions safely while we are empty. Mobile phones connect each other across the space and time.

150/ This phenomenon was named the range of distribution, which refers to the distance between themselves and belongings that people allow for going out.

153-154/ In house, the risk of possession is relatively minimum and convenience is an important factor … Most people have groceries near the kitchen, near the toilet near the toilet, the coats required for going out, bags, bags, bags, Things like keys tend to be placed near the entrance. Mobile phones are usually placed on the desk for adults, and for adolescents, they are mainly near beds … This place, which tends to be attracted to a portable product, is called a center of gravity. The storage device Spatial Mnemonic Device. For example, people who hang the keys on the pond next to the front door are unlikely to lose their keys. A person who puts cash, ID cards, credit cards, traffic cards, book loan certificates, and business cards in his purse and keeps it in his pocket does not need to think twice when one of them is needed. The center of gravity proves that mental convenience is as important as physical convenience in the distribution range.

… There is a simple behavior that is widely used to overcome this natural tendency to forget important things. When leaving a place and heading to another place, it is to check the list of things that will stop for a while and take care of your head by checking the so -called reflection of the so -called ruminants.

[5. What will you observe?]

185-187/ I can’t understand the stress and grievances that the city residents feel without experiencing extreme commuter jams. In Cairo, you have to go densely in people and go hot and tough. Tokyo’s efficiency also follows density … If a commuter train is delayed for a few minutes in Tokyo, it will give a delayed certificate to the company to the company. It turned out to greatly improve the quality of it.

189/ India has a common room for men and women, women and children, while in the UK, there is a waiting room for everyone. Japan is likely to have a standing room for smokers nearby, and there are three waiting rooms in China. One is a place that anyone can use and the other is military. The third is the VIP room …

In countries where bombings occur continuously, most of them do not have facilities such as storage boxes, trash bins, or lost goods storage. New York is the world’s most editing city, except for Juba Juba of South Sudan, who recently separated.

194-196/ McDonald’s in the Bay … Half of the menu is vegetarian. McAlu Tiki Mcaloo Tikki is a food made with potatoes, peas, or bread with main ingredients. It is precisely stated so that it is not confusing with the carnivorous menu. The restaurant is completely separated into two kitchens, so you can prepare food with meat in one place. Kitchen and staff are also separated.

Like Japan, McDonald’s, which is open for 24 hours, becomes a dragonfly for homeless people, or a shelter for people waiting for the dawn bus. If you have a cup of coffee, you can put your head on the table without being disturbed.

199/ On the other hand, some markings are built to avoid legal responsibility. ‘Do not look at the railing’

In the 201/ Culture with a high illiteracy, it is easier for people who do not read to read on the help of others instead of the display. In New Delhi, for example, the illiterate tricycle driver is likely to stand up and bury the road or call a friend when he is out of the area he knows well.

Some displays show the evolution of science and technology. The picture of the ‘Prohibition of Mobile Phone’ was initially started with Motorola’s so -called brick phone. It has been changed to Nokia’s Candybar style over time and then changed to Apple’s iPhone.

[6. What to trust and distrust you?]

217-224/ Six elements that determine the reliability of the company

Genuine Authenticity, Promise Performance Fullfillment, Value Value, Stability Reliability, Safety Safety

When a product has a characteristic that meets our expectations, we call it genuine.

We trust products that match our companies and do not trust products that do not reach it.

The value is the quality level compared to other products.

The stable product will work tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, and the next day.

Safety is not trusted by products that are considered to be seriously harmful to people and the environment physically and psychologically.

The possibility of dependence is the explicit and intriguing meaning that producers and sellers will solve the problem quickly and politely if the product breaks down. The possibility of explicit dependence includes quality certificates, customer center free telephone, replacement policy, and refund guarantee.

226-227/ Local businessman … copied the brand’s image and changed it to Kabul Pride KFC.

When you enter the real KFC branch, you can’t find the animals used as ingredients on the menu or sign. In a high trust ecosystem, fast food companies make the distance between the animals and the foods on the plate. But in Kabul, the situation is different. One item added to the sign was a very realistic picture of a chicken. In countries where ‘chicken’ may not be a real chicken, consumers need to reaffirm raw materials.

New Coke New Coke … As you can see, it is determined by consumers to be genuine … Life Saber Soda LIFE SAVER SODA, named after lifetime saber candy. Ask people who have produced Aspirin’s Aspirin, Ballpen’s Big BIC’s underwear, and pistol company Smith and Wesson’s mountain bicycles. All of these products are highly recognized but failed.

227-235/ Steps to squeeze the nose on the milk

For consumers of low trust ecosystems, where distrust becomes the default, and that merchants need to prove that their products are reliable, confidence indicators are designed to pull potential customers from the realm of rejection. In Chongqing, China, spit in public places is still relatively common. So taxi drivers are … on the back of the front seat cover, there is a day of the week.

According to 2009 statistics, Uganda and Afghanistan can use only 9 percent and 15 percent of each population … Mobile phone users … to the owner of the store … In the neighborhood, merchants are trying to get trust through the lights by putting a light bulb on the power source … In Uganda, the street vendors kept the 크레이지슬롯 phone in a small safe that looks like a security play. .

Taobao Taobao is operated in a low trust ecosystem … There is a dedicated chat room … You can test the odor with each other … The customer can receive the goods and the payment amount can be placed in the escrow account with the escrow account. have. This is essentially meaning that Taobao is not just mediating commerce, but also brokers the trust between sellers and buyers. This is the difference between eBay’s defeat in the Chinese market and Taobao’s victory.

235-243/ Fireful but helpful countermeasures

Why do fake Viagra and pirate Windows CDs trust products that are likely to be risk? At first, if there is no other alternative, consumers often lower their trust limits. Third, like many fake products, from sneakers to mobile phones, fake Viagra has a offsetting effect that consumers can take risk when comparing risk and financial costs. In other words, people who buy imitation Viagra have more dangerous skills than monetary ability.

… because you don’t have the ability to replace it with other things … sometimes you know that it’s a counterpart, but you buy things … It’s time to save money to buy the authenticity …

In China, there is a huge shadow industry that specializes in copying and illegal manufacturing. However, this industry (this industry, called the Shanzai 山寨 means ‘Fortress made in the mountains’, but it also means ‘the den of bandit’), but by replacing the product after the paradox of the product. It created a culture of production and innovation. For example, Shanzai producers first developed a cell phone with several slots with SIM cards … they also made a cell phone with built -in electric shaver and cigarette packs. Go to 11 Furniture, IKEA’s copy, and take a look at the furniture (unfortunately we don’t sell Ikea meatball dishes).

Then who will you trust? Brand, factory, or everyone? … How will you give consumers the opportunity to test the odor?

[7. The essence that only sees the daily life]

247/ Ho Chi Minh City’s residential area … A large bottle containing a translucent liquid of 3 to 4 liters is placed on the brick, and a 10 -year -old boy with a plastic hose in his hand … It is a gas station with only elements.

249-255/ Simple is right.

Thinking about the roadmap of possibilities for certain products and services, there is a way to imagine the cone shape. 현재를 나타내는 꼭짓점에서 시작하여 미래 속으로 계속 퍼져나간다… 단순한 이미지를 염두에 두었을 때 여러 가지 디자인의 방향을 탐색하는 일이 훨씬 쉬워진다.

원뿔은 단지 선택사항의 이론적 범위를 보여주기 위한 것이다. 일단 가고자 하는 구체적인 디자인의 방향을 잡고 점점 더 많은 선택사항을 추가해 넣었다면 여러분은 크리핑 피처리즘creeping featurism의 함정에 빠질 위험이 있다. 이것은 유용하기 보다는 혼란을 유발하는 기능과 특징을 자꾸만 층층이 쌓아올리는 나쁜 버릇을 말한다. 도널드 노먼Donald A. Norman은… [일상용품의 디자인The Design of Everyday Things]에서 크리핑 피처리즘에 대해 ‘재빨리 치료하지 않으면 안되는 치명적인 병’이라고 묘사하면서…

자원이 매우 한정된 사회에서… 대부분은 개발도상국이었지만 선진국내 특정 지역사회도 포함이 되었다…

(브라질의 상당히 부유한 지역인) 코브라솔에서… 즉석사진 촬영부스를 우연히 발견했는데 단 한 가지 빠진 것이 있었다. 바로 카메라였다… 인쇄가게에 있던 그 부스의 용도는 증명사진의 배경을 제공하기 위한 것이었다. 증명사진을 찍고 싶은 손님이 오면 부스 안에 앉힌 후 가게 주인이 카메라를 가져와서 부스 앞에 난 커다란 구멍에 대고 사진을 찍었다.

한편 울란바토르에서는 ‘노상 휴대전화 서비스’를 발견했다. 길거리에 테이블과 부피가 큰 탁상용 일반 전화기를(그러나 일반 전화선에 연결된 것이 아니라 건전지와 SIM카드로 작동하는 전화였다) 설치해놓은 형태였다. 점원은 고객이 전화를 하는 동안 옆에서 전화기를 들고 따라다닌다.

길거리는 단서를 모으고 정보를 수집하기에 알맞은 곳이지만 연구 프로젝트 중에는 이러한 지면수위ground-level 활동을 보완하기 위해 여러 가지 기법을 사용한다… 나는… 대개 가정집을 방문하고 거기서 시간을 보내는 편이다. 집은 사람들이 가장 마음 편히 하고 싶은 대로 행동하는 곳이기 때문이다.

… 만약 공식적 연구 상황이라면… 참여자들에게 흰 종이를 주고 일반적인 기능들의 3분의 1이나 절반 정도를 포함시킬 만한 ‘예산’밖에 없다고 가정하고 이 범위 내에서 어떤 기능들을 넣을지 적어보라는 테스트를 한다. 이러한 테스트는 참여자가 어떤 기능을 제일 가치있게 여기고 선택한 기능들 간에 어떤 상호작용이 있는지 생각해보도록 한다. 그리고 이 테스트 결과는 연구팀에게 소비자 선호도에 관한 다양한 종류의 통찰을 제공한다…

스튜디오로 돌아온 뒤에는… 은행업에 관한 프로젝트일 경우, 안전이나 편리성 혹은 ‘좋은 서비스’라는 개념이 은행 고객들에게 무엇을 의미하는지 혹은 그들의 기술적 조망이 어떤지 살펴보았을 때 아이디어를 얻을 수 있다. 한편 어떤 일을 수행하는 방법이 다른 이유를 알고자 하는 경우는 개성personality으 통해(혹은 외부적 성격persona이나 원형archetype이나 특정 세분시장에 맞는 실제 소비자들을 통해) 풍부한 직접적 현장 자료에서 드러날 때가 많다. 그리고 연료를 사거나 전화를 걸거나 차 한 잔을 끓이는 것과 같은 과정들을 단계별로 매핑하면 재상상이 쉬워진다…

에드워드 드 보노가 고안한… 수평적 사고연습이 있다… 팀의 선입견을 깨는 일련의 자극 요소를 활용해 상황에 전혀 어울리지 않는 무엇인가를 통합시키는 방법을… 상업은행 서비스를 살펴보는 데 특이한 자극으로 폭신한 중국제 판다곰 인형을 이용해보자…

이것은 붕괴와 재구성의 과정인데 희한하고 재미있으면서도 비실용적인 아이디어가 많이 나온다. 그러나 전혀 생각지 못했던 그러면서도 ‘내가 왜 진작 이 생각을 못했지?’ 싶은 상식적 발상들도 떠오를 수 있다. 이러한 통찰은 다른 것들보다 본질을 더 잘 포착하는 경우가 많다.

256-262/ 휘발유 없는 주유소

자신이 지구를 처음 방문하는 외계인이라고 상상해보라. 그리고 경기가 진행 중인 영국의 축구장을 가로질러 간다. 이 경험을 동료 외계인들에게 어떻게 설명하겠는가?… 지구인 22명이 풀이 나 있는 땅뙈기에서 돼지 방광을 따라 이리저리 달리는 장면을 묘사하는 것이다. 무엇이 어느 지점까지 추상화될 때 오해를 불러올 수 있는지 보여주고, 또 그러한 추상화 지점으로부터 어떤 종류의 아이디어와 가정이 자라날 수 있는지 보여주는 것이 이 연습의 의의다. 22명이… 그 주 목표는 방광을 그물망에 차 넣는 것일 수도 있고 그것을 잡아 터뜨리는 것일 수도 있다. 아니면 희한하게 생긴 23번째 남자의 신경을 거슬리게 하는 것이 목표일 수도 있다. 이 남자는 검은 옷을 입고 있는데 가끔씩 고통스러운 듯이 귀를 찢는 삑삑 소리를 내는 것으로 보아 그가 하는 일이 몹시 괴로운 일인 것 같다. 혹은 공원을 가꾸는 일이 종교화된 사회인지도 모른다. 그래서 이런 활동의 목적은 노예들에게 특수 디자인된 신발을 신겨서 신성한 잔디밭을 일구고 밟아주는 것임에 틀림없다.

무엇인가를 핵심만 남기고 다 벗겨보는 훈련은 그 자체로도 매우 보람있다. 어떤 제품의 부수적인 요소들을 완전히 다 벗긴 형태는 시장에 독특한 가치를 제공하는 우아미를 선사할 수도 있다. 그러나 핵심에 대한 심도 있는 이해는 재구성하면서 얻게 된다. 특히 제품이나 서비스가 본질적으로 어떻게 변하는지 생각해볼 때 핵심을 깊이 이해할 수 있게 된다.

만약 주유소의 본질이 벽돌 위의 병이 아니라 현재 주유소에서 겪는 어떤 주변적 경험이라면 어떻게 될까?… 주유소의 핵심 기능이 중매를 알선하는 일이라면 어떨까?… 고객들이 줄을 서서 상대와 그 차량을 잘 관찰하고 잠재적 파트너 간에 손쉽게 상호작용을 할 수 있는 형태로 앞마당을 디자인할 수 있을 것이다. 기름을 넣는 과정은 대화를 나눌 수 있을 만큼 길어야 하지만 그 시간이 너무 길어서 실수할 기회를 주어서도 안된다… 이 모든 과정의 목적은 자연스럽게 좀 더 조용한 곳으로 이동할 수 있는 기회를 주기 위해서다. 언젠가는 초콜릿이나 다이아몬드처럼 휘발유를 선물하는 것이 보편적인 구애행위로 여겨질 때가 올지도 모른다.

주유소가 언제든지 먹을 수 있는 음식을 전문으로 하는 업체의 개념에 바탕을 두고 설립된다면? 혹은 동네 최고의 화장실 서비스 제공업체라면? 또는 현재의 구조와 전혀 관계가 없는 아트 갤러리나 놀이공원 같은 서비스는 어떨까?… 핵심 기능에 대한 욕구가 없는 사람에게 서비스나 제품이 어떻게 보일지 느낄 수 있게 해준다…

20세기 초엽에는 차를 소유할 수 있을 만큼 부유한 극소수를 위한 틈새상품으로 약국에서 휘발유를 팔았다. 이 부자고객들은 보통 차를 관리할 운전사도 함께 고용했다. 그 이후 차츰 중산층의 미국인들도 차를 소유하게 되면서 차량 서비스센터가 전국 곳곳에 생겨났고 요즘 우리가 말하는 ‘풀 서비스’를 제공하기 시작했다. 이곳의 점원들이 기름을 넣고, 오일을 체크하고, 타이어에 공기를 넣고 그외 다양한 기술적 서비스를 제공했다. ‘서비스’가 실제 운영의 핵심이었고 소비자 경험의 본질이었다. 텍사코Texaco나 걸프Gulf 같은 대형 주유소 체인점들은 직원들이 얼마나 친절한지 광고했고, 필요한 곳에 어디든 갈 수 있도록 도와준다는 회사의 고객서비스 철학에 따라 공짜 도로지도를 주면서 소비자들을 꼬드겼다.

그런데 차들의 안정성이 점점 높아지면서 차를 자주 정비할 필요가 없어졌다. 거기에다 신기술 덕분에 운전자들이 직접 주유를 해도 될 만큼 안전해지고 전자결제도 가능해지자 주유소의 본질이 서비스에서 연료충전으로 바뀌었다. 이것은 차량은 물론 운전자에게도 해당되는 이야기로 주유소에 붙어있는 편의점에서 간식과 음료수와 담배를 사고 화장실에 가는 등 운전할 기력을 재충전한다.

‘서비스 센터’나 ‘휴게 주유소’ 같은 모델은 모두 벽돌 위의 병보다 훨씬 더 많은 것을 제공하지만 각각의 맥락에 따라 둘 다 주유소의 본질로 볼 수 있다.

1998년 일본정부가… 운전자가 스스로 주유할 수 있도록 허용하고나서도… 10년이 지난 뒤에도 일본 내 셀프주유소는 전체의 16퍼센트밖에 되지 않으며…

유류 판매로는 남는 이익이 거의 없기 때문에… 간식과 음료를 파는 것이 불가피하다. 워싱턴 시에는 상당히 파격적인 시장 전략을 수용한 주유소 주인이 있다. 기름값을 엄청나게 올려서 길 건너에 있는 주유소와 비교해 갤런당 1달러 이상 차이가 날 때도 많다… 미국 석유마케팅협회 회장인 댄 길리 건은… “그 사람은 휘발유를 팔 생각이 없습니다.”…

휘발유 대신 전기로 가는 차들이 점점 더 늘어나고 있는 지금, 앞으로도 ‘휴게주유소’의 핵심이 여전히 주유와 충전일까? 지금까지 공공충전의 경우 주로 주차공간 옆에 충전기를 설치해놓은 형태가 대부분이다… 뉴욕에 있는 허드슨 리버 밸리의 하이 폴즈High Falls는 재개발 사업의 일환으로 버려진 주유소를 충전소, 요가 스튜디오, 명상 센터로 보수하고 있다. 언젠가는 주유소가 공중전화부스나 전통적 소매은행처럼 점점 사라지게 될까?

262-267/ 모든 인프라는 일시적 껍질에 불과하다

금융서비스의 측면에서 선진국과 개발도상국의 격차는 어마어마하다. 전세계 가구 중 약 49퍼센트가 예금계좌를 갖고 있지만 일본은 계좌보유율이 거의 100퍼센트인 데 반해 콩고와 아프가니스탄은 1퍼센트도 안된다…

케냐의 엠-페사 같은 모바일 송금서비스는… 모바일 연결망과 사회관계망을 이용한다… 엠-페사는 소비자들이 휴대전화로 계좌를 열 수 있게 해주고 통화시간을 미리 사서 ‘전송’하는 것과 같은 방법으로 입출금을 하게 해준다. 혹은 결제카드를 발급해주는 심플Simple이라는 인터넷 서비스의 경우는 스마트폰으로 입금이나 송금, 공과금 납부 같은 출금 기능을 이용할 수 있게 해준다… 거기에는 지점도 금고도 창구직원도 줄 서 있는 사람들도 없지만 예금보험공사FDIC가 보증해준다… 그 사업은 사람들이 자신의 돈 관리를 위해 원하는 바의 본질에 집중하면서 유행하는 최신 기술을 이용해 설계된 한편, 수수료 부분에서 투명성을 보장함으로써 성공을 거뒀다… 은행이 인프라를 다 벗겨내고 안전과 입출금의 용이성이라는 본질로 다가갔을 때 커다란 원뿔 모양의 가능성이 열린다. 또 그러한 제품의 장단점에 대해 생각해보는 것은 훌륭한 훈련이 되기도 한다.

267-269/ 당신이 창업을 꿈꾼다면?

제품이나 서비스의 본질을 찾아서 새로운 가능성을 만들어내는 실제작업은 대체로 창업하는 업체들에게 유리하다. 동네 주유소가… 거대한 벽돌 위에 거대한 병을 가져다 놓기를 정말로 기대하는 사람은 없다. 기존 인프라의 매몰비용이 가능성의 원뿔을 크게 좁힐 수 있는 것처럼 기회의 원뿔도 좁힐 수 있다. 특히 사업체가 껍질을 바꾸기 전에 소비자가 먼저 바꾸려고 한다면 말이다.

… 타타 나노의 생산자는 자동차를 소유한다는 것이 단지 바퀴 네 개와 엔진을 소유한다는 뜻이 아니라 자동차 소유주가 됨으로써 사회적인 지위를 부여받는다는 것을 간과했다. 그래서 타타 나노의 소유주가 이 세상에서 가장 싸구려 차의 주인이라는 낙인이 찍히도록 만들어버렸다.

기존업체의 경우 신규 사업체가 가지는 다양한 가능성은 없어도 사업경험이라는 무시할 수 없는 무기가 있다. .. 층층이 쌓인 기능이나 설비나 부수 장착물 아래 본질에 대한 타당한 이해가 숨어있다는 일반적인 신호다… 추가된 층의 가치를 이해함과 동시에 현재의 공식에서 더하고 빼기를 통해 얻을 수 있는 기회를 발견하기 위해서는 그것들을 하나씩 벗겨내는 상상을 해보면서 아쉬운 마음이 드는지, 아무 느낌이 없는지 생각해보면 된다.

단순함이 옳은 것이라면 본질을 찾는 것은 현실 직시다.

[8. 기업들의 오만과 편견]

276/ … 소변기도 보이지 않았다. 이란 정부가 국민에게 쭈그리고 앉아서 용변을 보도록 명령했기 때문이다.


[부록: 관찰연구의 여덟 가지 법칙]

얀 칩체이스 & 사이먼 슈타인하트, 관찰의 힘Hidden in Plain Sight, 위너스북, 2013.


발췌 기록을 하다 보니, 처음 읽었을 때보다 더 훌륭한 책이었다는 것을 새삼 깨닫는다. 더욱 음미할 필요가 있는 책이다.

To the Imperial Hotel on June 12th.

Click here for the purpose.

“Naritaya’s Gathering” that only Naritaya members can participate.

It was said that it would be exchanged for a reserved seat at the reception, so I thought it would be the order I went, so I went early, but it was already decided.

I had time until the opening ceremony, so I went to the lobby lounge to moisten my thirsty throat.

Enter the nearby MUJI cafe.

When you get to the seat, the seat is very close

A lottery does not hit

On the way back, it is guided for each seat and exchanges souvenirs.

What is 온라인카지노 Baccarat

I feel that souvenirs are different depending on the seat

Yes, Shrimp

And T -shirt.

This time, I had no dinner in consideration of Corona, but it was a valuable experience talking with my favorite sisters.